How to stepson cucumbers in a greenhouse step by step
Cucumbers are one of the main crops in summer cottages in our country. They are grown everywhere both in open ground and in greenhouses and greenhouses. However, many summer residents do not know that cucumbers must be planted. This simple procedure will increase the yield of each bush and prevent many plant diseases.
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In this article we will explain why stepsoning is needed, when to carry out this procedure and present a complete step-by-step instruction for beginners.
Do cucumbers stepchild in the greenhouse, and why is this needed?
In the process of development, the main lash (vine) is formed in the cucumber bush. It grows from the root, and it is on it that the bulk of the fruits ripen.
After some time, lateral shoots begin to grow from the leaf sinuses from the central lash (Stepchildren).
If you do not remove them, then they will develop into full-fledged lashes, some of them will also grow cucumbers. However, in terms of size and taste, they are significantly worse than cucumbers from the main lash.
For their development, such processes use the resources of the main vine. Accordingly, instead of spending nutrients on the formation of fruits, the plant will direct all efforts to the growth of new lashes.
Stepson - This is the process of removing similar lateral shoots from the main stem (vines, lashes). This is done so that beneficial substances are not spent on the development of new lashes, but are sent directly to the formation and development of cucumbers.
The only disadvantage of pinching is labor. This procedure is carried out in several stages, and you will have to work separately with each bush.
Particularly important is pinching for cucumbers that grow in a greenhouse. Firstly, unlike open ground, usable space is limited. Secondly, because of the favorable conditions of the greenhouse, plants develop faster. Therefore, it is very important not to miss the moment of removal of the side shoots.
REFERENCE. Pasynkovka is not a mandatory procedure in the care of cucumbers. However, it can be used to speed up the ripening process and increase yield.
When is the procedure performed?
In order not to miss the optimal moment for pinching, you must carefully monitor the development of cucumber bushes.
The first time the procedure is carried out after the formation of the plant 5 "real" leaves. The height of the bush at this time is about 30-40 cm. The length of the stepsons is about 5-6 cm.
IMPORTANT. These are the optimal conditions for the procedure. In reality, it all depends on each particular bush.
Stepsoning is not tied to a specific date or lunar calendar. It must be carried out as the plant develops. Nevertheless, experienced summer residents recommend conducting stepsoning until the beginning of August.
The main feature of the formation of a cucumber bush in a greenhouse is to carry out the procedure in several stages. That is, you have to remove the lateral processes from the cucumbers at least three times.
This is due to the peculiarity of the culture. Cucumber grows with vines (lashes) and regularly releases extra shoots.
It is best to pinch with the help of an office knife or garden shears. Many summer residents remove the shoots with their hands, but if you are doing this procedure for the first time, then it is better to use garden tools.
TIP. It is necessary to remove the stepson, leaving a small "stump" of a few millimeters on the stem.
Try not to damage the main stem or leaf, which will provide nutrition to the ovary of the future fetus.
Indoor step-by-step steps for beginners
Step 1. If the bush is not tied, correct it and tie it to a trellis or any other support.
Step 2 As soon as the bush grows to 30-40 cm in height, we carry out the first stage of the procedure. We pluck out all the processes from the leaf sinuses. Even those on which ovaries have already formed.
Please note this is very important. At a height of up to 40 cm, not a single stepson should remain on the main lash. Firstly, the root system is better developed. Secondly, all the nutrients will go to the further development of the plant.
IMPORTANT! After each pruning of the shoots, it is necessary to irrigate the bush with warm water and loosening the soil.
Step 3 The bush grows another 30-40 cm and begins to bloom. At this time, remove the lower leaves (the very first 4 pieces). They are no longer needed. Nutrition bush is provided by the upper leaves.
Step 4 So, the cucumber bush grew to 70-80 cm. The lower part (at a height of 30-40 cm) is exposed. Now, on the upper part of the main stem, it is necessary for each leaf to leave only 1 flower emerging from the sinus. This is the future fruit. All other shoots are cut.
To summarize the subtotal. Cucumber bush is as follows. The lower half (about 40 cm) is exposed, there are no processes, leaves, or shoots on it. On the upper half of the bush there are 3-5 leaves. Each sinus leaf grows 1 flower. There are no other shoots.
Step 5 We are waiting for the next growth of the main vine of the bush by 30-40 cm and the appearance of new stepsons on it.
Now you do not need to remove the processes. On each shoot, 1-2 leaves with a flower should be left. In the same way as in the previous step with the main stem.
Step 6 The bush has grown to about 1.2 - 1.5 m. Now you can give it free rein and not remove new shoots. Here, by the way, there will be the largest crop. Side lashes can be lowered down to the ground or allowed to trail along the trellis if your cucumber bushes are planted far from each other.
IMPORTANT! If the plant has begun to develop more slowly, or the number of fruits has decreased, then cucumbers must be fed. A nutritious mixture based on peat fertilizer or ash is suitable.
Do I need to pinch cucumbers in a greenhouse
Pinching is no less important than pinching.
Pinch - This is a limitation of the growth of cucumber vines. This procedure is carried out in order to redirect nutrients from the formation of new shoots to the setting and development of the fruit.
If you do not pinch, then the bushes of cucumbers will grow greatly, but at the same time empty lashes and leaves will occupy most of the area.
Pinching is very important for plants in protected ground. The space in the greenhouse is limited, and filling it with green mass is inefficient.
The main tasks of pinching cucumbers in a greenhouse:
- Reduce the number of male-type inflorescences;
- Remove mustache, empty flowers and barren shoots;
- Form a cucumber bush so that it receives maximum light;
- Prevent thickening of landings.
How to pinch plants step by step?
The general rules for pinching cucumbers in a greenhouse are as follows:
- At a height of 30-50 cm from the ground, all shoots, flowers, and a little later leaves should be removed. We talked about this above.
- The main lash is nipped at a distance of 50-60 cm from the point of attachment to a trellis or other support. Growing a vine no longer makes practical sense.
- Remember the side shoots that you left to grow after pinching? Pinch the lower ones at a distance of 30-40 cm from the main stem. Upper at a distance of 40-50 cm from the main stem.
Features of varieties pollinated by bees
Varieties that are pollinated by bees have both female and male flowers. At the same time, male-type inflorescences grow on the main lash and almost all are empty flowers. Female-type inflorescences grow on the lateral processes.
Therefore, in pollinated varieties, the main vine should be pinched. The procedure must be carried out after the appearance of 5 true sheets. You also need to remove almost all the empty flowers. Leave just a few pieces.
Features of self-pollinated varieties
Self-pollinated varieties differ in that they do not need bees to form ovaries. They have a large number of female-type inflorescences and very few male-type inflorescences.
Pinching parthenocarpic cucumbers in general is carried out according to the following scheme:
- on the bottom of the bush, shoots, ovaries, flowers and even small cucumbers are completely removed. Do not be afraid to cut them, the crop will not suffer from this;
- the first lateral shoots are left at a height of 80-100 cm. On them you need to cut everything except 2 ovaries and 2 leaflets;
- after another half a meter, 4 ovaries and 4 leaves are left on the side shoots.
REFERENCE. Since bees are difficult to access in the greenhouse, they usually plant parthenocarpic, that is, self-pollinated varieties and hybrids of cucumbers, in the protected ground. Consider this fact when buying seeds.
What greenhouse varieties do not need pinching?
Not all cucumbers need to be planted. It all depends on the particular variety. It is not necessary to pinch the following varieties and hybrids:
- Winter storm;
- Petrovsky F1;
- Saratov F1, etc.
Signs of cucumber varieties that do not need to be pinched:
- Form one vine;
- Growing bush, not vines;
- They have a female type of flowering;
- Form small side shoots and do not grow.
If you still have little experience in gardening work, and you are poorly versed in numerous varieties and hybrids, then when buying cucumber seeds in a store, just ask for varieties with limited growth of side shoots for greenhouses.
Care after work
Even after the final formation of the bush, care for cucumbers can not be stopped. On the contrary, during the fruiting period, the plant needs to be given as much attention as possible.
Proper care includes:
- Timely watering with warm water. Cucumbers are very afraid of any cold, so the water from the hose will not work. Collect a barrel, basin or old bath and let the water warm up for a day.
- Regular weeding of beds. There is little space in the greenhouse, so the problem of thickening plantings is especially relevant.
- Removing damaged and diseased leaves. They do not allow cucumbers to fully develop.
- Timely harvesting. Do not let the cucumbers linger on the lashes. Tear them as soon as they ripen.
- Additional plant nutrition. Experienced gardeners advise after planting not only to water the cucumbers, but also to feed them.
How to get an extra crop
There is one trick that allows you to get another crop from greenhouse cucumbers. At the end of summer - the beginning of autumn, when the main fruiting is coming to an end, untie the whips of cucumbers from the supports and lay them on the ground. Carefully inspect them and remove those shoots that look sick and on which there are no ovaries. Feed the bush with a nutritious mixture of crushed charcoal and peat-based fertilizer.
Now you need to wait for a new crop. Of course, it will not be as plentiful as a summer one, but you will definitely get a couple more kilograms of cucumbers. If weather forecasters predict a cooling, then bushes and lashes can be additionally covered with spanbond or other covering material.
- Sloppy work. You need to remove the shoots very carefully so as not to damage the leaf or flower. It is best to use a clerical knife. With its help, you can make a neat cut.
- Too early or too late a procedure. It is necessary to carry out stepsoning when at least 4 true leaves appear at the cucumber bush. Earlier work would be of no benefit. At the same time, if the lateral shoot has grown significantly, then it is too late to remove.
- Non-compliance with pinching and pinching patterns. If you started the procedure, then follow the instructions and do not drop the case halfway. Otherwise, you will not be able to fully appreciate the benefits of pinching cucumbers in the greenhouse.
- Lack of watering after the procedure. Pasynkovanie is still an injury to the bush. Therefore, after such stress, cucumbers need to replenish the supply of nutrients. Use only warm water. Ideally, it should be rain or river water. In no case do not water the cucumbers directly from the hose.
In the future, with the acquisition of gardening experience, you can use a variety of schemes for planting cucumbers in the greenhouse. But it's best to start with the easiest way.