All about feeding raspberries at different times, different tips and tricks
Raspberry is one of the most popular summer cottage plants in Russia. This shrub grows in almost every area.
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However, many summer residents do not care for raspberries. This is especially true for plant nutrition. But the introduction of nutrients significantly increases the yield of this crop.
What types of spring dressing are there?
Fertilizing in the spring is aimed at replenishing the supply of mineral elements in the ground under the raspberry. If the soil is “poor”, then the bush will have nowhere to take nutrients for growth and fruiting.
In the spring, under the raspberry, 3 types of dressings are added:
- Nitrogen fertilizers;
- Potassium salts.
Superphosphates give strength to the plant to grow new shoots. Thanks to these elements, the berries become larger and juicier, increasing productivity.
TIP. Experienced gardeners advise dissolving superphosphates in milk rather than water to further enhance the effect.
Nitrogen is necessary for the plant to grow foliage. Therefore, it is added to the soil already at the first spring tillage. The most accessible sources of nitrogen are urea and ammonium nitrate.
Thanks to potassium, immunity improves in plants. They better tolerate droughts and frosts and resist diseases and pests. Instead of potassium salts in the spring under the raspberries you can make ash.
IMPORTANT! When making potassium preparations, make sure that they do not contain chlorine. Raspberry does not tolerate this chemical element. From it begins to turn yellow foliage.
How to determine what top dressing is needed
Raspberries need to be fed every spring. However, there are several signs indicating the need for additional fertilizer application. They can occur both collectively and separately:
- Raspberries grow poorly, branches are thin and weak.
- The leaves of the bush are small and with a yellowish tinge.
- Leaf plates, in whole or in part, change color (become pale, brown, yellow, etc.).
All this indicates that raspberries lack the necessary mineral elements: phosphorus, iron, nitrogen, potassium, etc.
There are 2 ways to apply fertilizer:
- Root dressing (for example, watering under the root of the bush with a liquid solution).
- Foliar top dressing (e.g. spraying beneficial compounds onto leaves and shoots of a plant).
Features of root dressing
In spring, root dressing is carried out mainly. In this case, the nutritional composition can be both in liquid form and in powder form. The earth in the near-stem circle is previously loosened so that feeding is better absorbed. If you make preparations dry, then the soil then needs to be dug up.
The advantage of liquid fertilizer is that it immediately goes to the roots of the plant and there is no need to additionally water the shrub.
Foliar top dressing
Foliar top dressing are auxiliary in nature. They are designed to saturate the plant with the necessary nutrients through the aboveground part.
However, foliar top dressing is a great way to fertilize in an emergency. For example, with "heavy" or waterlogged soil, with damage to the roots and the presence of pests.
Top dressing during planting
During planting, drugs are added directly to the wells or trenches.
At this time, organic fertilizing is usually applied, for example, rotted manure. Fertilizer is placed on the bottom of the pit with a layer of 10 cm. Top with the same layer of earth and sprinkled with raspberry seedlings.
Experienced summer residents are advised to add 2 tablespoons of potassium salt and superphosphate to organic dressing.
Such a nutritional mixture is necessary for raspberries to take root in a new place.
When to start top dressing in spring?
The time to start work with raspberries depends on the temperature regime of the region. In the middle lane, you need to make organic dressings in late March - early April. In the south of the country - in early March, in the north - in mid-April.
A common guideline for starting feeding is the appearance of the first buds on the shoots.
Feeding steps and schemes
The general scheme for feeding raspberries is as follows:
- Top dressing during the appearance and swelling of the kidneys.
- Fertilizing during the appearance and blooming of leaves.
- Top dressing during the flowering period.
- Fertilizing during fruiting to enhance palatability and yield.
- Preparing raspberries for wintering.
INTERESTING! Some summer residents carry out the first feeding of raspberries before the snow melts, so that the beneficial substances are absorbed into the soil along with melt water.
Top dressing during flowering
During flowering, the following fertilizers can be applied:
- Cow manure solution (1 part to 40 parts of water);
- Chicken Litter Solution. First, a concentrate is prepared (1 part to 10 parts of water). Then 1 liter of this concentrate is added to a bucket of water and watered shrubs.
- Yeast solution (10 g per 10 l of water).
Differences in the nutrition of adults and young plants
The scheme and amount of fertilizer applied directly depends on the age of raspberries.
If you planted a bush only this year, then you need to feed it so that it is better rooted. For these purposes, it is better to use superphosphates. You need to start top dressing in the summer, in the spring it is not worth fertilizing.
In stores, a special tool is sold "Universal". It is best suited for feeding young raspberries.
Adult plants are fed to increase the yield and taste of the berries themselves. Therefore, special attention is paid to the application of potash and phosphorus fertilizers in the summer and nitrogen in the spring.
What fertilizers are there?
There are 2 large groups of fertilizers:
- Mineral (i.e. chemically extracted);
- Organic (i.e., being the products of the vital activity of living things).
Mineral fertilizers themselves are harmless. They contain the same chemical elements as organic top dressing, but in a higher concentration. Mineral additives become dangerous for plants, if you do not follow the norm when they are applied to the soil.
However, the same applies to organics. Excess mullein or chicken droppings can also “burn” the roots of the bush.
INTERESTING! There is another category of fertilizers - obtained by microbiological synthesis. They can contain nutrients or just a culture of bacteria or fungi, with which the raspberry root system better perceives beneficial substances. Fertilizers of this type include drugs "Nikfan", "Azotobacterin", "Nitragin", etc.
Mineral fertilizers are concentrated substances that plants need for active growth and fruiting.
Mineral fertilizers are a product of the chemical industry. There are 4 large groups of mineral fertilizers:
The advantage of this type of top dressing is that the amount of mineral fertilizers applied is much less than organic.
Mineral fertilizers can be purchased at any specialized hardware store.
Organic fertilizers are the product of the vital activity of animals and plants. For example, manure, litter, humus, ash, various infusions and "green fertilizers", etc.
The advantage of organic dressing in their availability. Summer residents who have a subsidiary farm do not need to spend extra money to buy fertilizers.
Features of fertilizing with nitrogen-containing fertilizers
Any fertilizer must be applied in a timely manner. For example, top dressing with a high proportion of nitrogen compounds is applied under raspberries only in the spring.
The fact is that nitrogen activates the growth of the green mass of the plant. In the spring it is very important. The faster raspberries open their leaves, the faster photosynthesis processes begin.
In summer and autumn, it is not necessary to make nitrogen fertilizers. Firstly, it will affect the quality and abundance of the crop. Secondly, the remaining foliage before wintering can cause the death of the bush from frost.
The most affordable fertilizers with a high nitrogen content are nitroammophosk and urea.
IMPORTANT! Nitrogen causes oxidation of the soil. Therefore, after making it under raspberries, add a little ash or lime.
Popular folk remedies
Some summer residents in the old manner feed raspberry bushes with proven folk remedies. The vast majority are organic fertilizers.
Feeding with infusion of herbs or "green fertilizer"
The recipe for "green fertilizer" is:
- Finely chop and mix weeds, nettle and comfrey.
- Pour 10 kg of water into 1 kg of the mixture and infuse the concentrate for 10 days.
- Prepare a working solution at the rate of 1 liter of concentrate per 10 liters of water.
- To process raspberries at the rate of 2 liters of working solution per 1 bush.
Ashes are used as top dressing both in dry form (100 g per 1 sq. M) and in the form of a solution (100 g per 1 bucket of water).
IMPORTANT! As fertilizer, only ash from burning trees and grass can be used. The ash from household waste should not be used in the garden!
Cow dung is one of the most popular fertilizers.
First, the concentrate is prepared in a ratio of 1 to 5. The resulting mixture is insisted for 15-20 days in a tightly closed container. It is important to mix the infusion regularly.
The working solution is prepared at the rate of 1 part of concentrate per 10 parts of water.
As a top dressing, both dry and live yeast are used.
10 g of dry yeast and 5 tbsp. tablespoons of sugar are mixed in 10 liters of warm water. The concentrate is infused for 2 hours, and then diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 5.
For the preparation of a concentrate of live yeast 1 kg of yeast and 1 tbsp. a spoonful of sugar is diluted in 10 liters of warm water and insisted for 4 hours. The resulting concentrate is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 20.
IMPORTANT! Yeast top dressing must be used all at once. Otherwise, the yeast will ferment.
Some gardeners feed raspberries with bark. To do this, throughout the season they collect rotten bark of trees and shrubs, branches and sticks, break it all into small pieces and scatter it under the raspberry.
When such remnants of the tree finally rot, they will saturate the raspberry roots with useful elements.
Dry potato peelings are finely chopped and poured with a liter of boiling water. Then the composition is allowed to infuse for 3-4 days, after which it is diluted in a bucket of water and watered raspberries.
IMPORTANT! As fertilizer, you can not use cleaning from sick potatoes. In this case, the probability of infection of raspberries with fungal diseases is high.
Chicken litter is not inferior to mullein in its properties. It is rich in nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. It also contains zinc, sulfur, boron and other trace elements useful for raspberry growth.
The effect of the use of chicken manure is noticeable after 10-14 days.
However, undiluted, this fertilizer can destroy raspberry. Therefore, before use, the litter is mixed with water in a ratio of 1 to 10, insist for at least a day.
The working solution is made at the rate of 1 liter of concentrate per bucket of water.
Using mulch as a fertilizer
In some cases, root dressing can be done using mulch (rotted manure, peat or compost). Firstly, such a layer will gradually nourish the roots of the plant throughout the season, and secondly, mulch will help maintain moisture at the roots of the shrub.
Among organics, the use of chicken manure and mullein will be most effective.
Of mineral fertilizers it is best to use
- Urea and nitroammophoska for nitrogen top dressing in the spring.
- Drug "Ideal" for summer complex top dressing.
- As a foliar fertilizer, most gardeners advise "Crystal".
- In autumn, after fruiting is best used organic.
Popular mistakes in the spring feeding process
- Feeding is not done on time. Each type of fertilizer has its own time. If the plant is fed sooner or later, then raspberries will not be able to properly use the nutrients.
- Excess or lack of fertilizer. Excess fertilizer is just as harmful as its deficiency. For example, an excessive amount of nitrogenous fertilizers provokes active foliage growth, which negatively affects the size and taste of berries.
- Failure to comply with technology. Fertilizers under the raspberry should be applied evenly so that each bush gets its share of nutrients.
- Use of poor-quality or inappropriate feeding. Expired fertilizers must be thrown away! Trying to preserve and apply them, you risk causing raspberries irreparable damage.
- The application of nitrogen fertilizers with a high content of chlorine. Chlorine is a substance that raspberries do not perceive. From a high concentration, the bush begins to suffer from chlorosis. The main symptom of this disease is yellowed leaves.
When do I need to top up raspberries?
The first feeding of raspberries is carried out in the spring during the period of kidney formation.
When is the last feeding of raspberries necessary?
The last time during the season raspberries are fed under the winter after harvest. Please note that in the fall, in no case should nitrogen fertilizers be applied.
What type of fertilizer is better to choose, organic or mineral fertilizing?
Top dressing is selected depending on the availability of each type of fertilizer, available cash and personal preferences of the gardener. Both mineral and organic fertilizers perform the same function: saturating the soil with useful nutrients necessary for the development of raspberries.
Is it harmful to use mineral fertilizers in a summer cottage?
Mineral fertilizers are absolutely harmless if you follow the agricultural technology and the rules for working with them.
Feeding raspberries is an important event that can significantly increase crop yields.
However, fertilizers must be applied carefully, observing the relevant rules. Otherwise, there is a high probability of "burning" the roots of the bush and to remain completely without raspberries.