Pike tail or sansevieria - the most unpretentious flower in the house
The pike tail, mother-in-law tongue, Indian sword or African hemp are all nicknames of the most unpretentious houseplant - sansevieria.
Grow it under the power of the laziest grower, and the appearance of the flower with any care remains attractive.
Botanically flower pike tail, Sansevieria is in the same family as asparagus plants. Outwardly, these are evergreen leaves growing directly from the ground without a stem.
The natural habitat is Africa. All species are conditionally divided into 2 large groups:
- Tall - with long lanceolate leaves reaching a height of 2 m.
- Undersizedgrowing in the form of rosettes.
Sansevieria has thick erect, monotonous or variegated leaves. Their surface is covered with a leathery film, the average growth rate is 3 or 4 sheets per year.
With proper care, the pike tail can bloom, releasing white buds in the spring on a long peduncle. A sweet vanilla aroma comes from them, and you can observe the flowering of the outlet only once.
Types of Sansevieria
In addition to unpretentiousness, pike tail is attractive and a wide variety of varieties. They differ in leaf height, stripes and contrast colors. The most popular types (names and photos) are described in detail below, so that the choice of a pet is as simple as possible.
Three-lane sansevieria is also known as Laurenti. This is a rosette-like species of pike tail. The shape of the leaves resembles a sword (up to 1 m in height), and their main advantage is color: a dark green basic tone with transverse whitish stripes, and a border of yellow-green color on the edges. White-green buds gather in a brush and exude a strong odor.
A low-growing variety that grows by only 30 cm. The shape of the rosette resembles a vase consisting of dark green leaves. Several varieties are developed that differ in color:
- Hanni Golden with longitudinal stripes of white and golden color.
- Hanni Silver is gray with dark green transverse stripes all over the sheet and around the edge.
- Hanni Krista cleans the air better than other varieties. Its plain green leaves slightly curl toward the center.
Sansevieria is cylindrical
Cylindrical sansevieria differs from other varieties in the form of leaves - thick smooth tubes, pointed at the apex. Their main tone is dark green, across the entire length the transverse stripes are several shades lighter. The buds are collected in an inflorescence resembling a brush.
The xiphoid long leaves grow vertically up to a meter high. The edges are slightly uneven, light green specks are scattered on the emerald surface. Zeylanika practically does not require leaving, adapting to any conditions.
Sansevieria Futura Superba
Variety of sansevieria with lanceolate leaves no more than half a meter high. In one outlet, up to 12 sheet plates are formed. On their edges - a fringing of yellow color.
The yellow color around the edges is very sensitive to environmental changes and quickly disappears with a lack of care.
Even a child can choose such an unpretentious houseplant as sansevieria.
Good lighting is important only for variegated varieties of thin tongue. They are recommended to be placed on a southwestern or eastern window, where the color will appear especially brightly.
If there is no suitable place, then feel free to you can grow plain varieties in the back of the room or on the north window.
It is recommended that they be rearranged at least 1–2 months a year closer to the light or taken out in the summer. During this time, a pair of new leaves are formed, which grow under the previous conditions.
Sansevieria adapts to a fairly wide temperature range - from 16 to 25 ° C. In summer, at higher rates, the pike tail will easily transfer heat and will not require additional attention.
Important! In winter, you can not allow a drop in temperature to 10 ° C, which will lead to frostbite of the roots and their decay.
Pike tail is able to develop at a constant temperature all year round. It will be necessary to create special conditions for wintering only if you want to see how sansevieria blooms. The temperature for this purpose drops to 15 ° C for 1 month.
How to water a pike tail
Teschin tongue gets along well with those who often forget to water the flowers. The hard leaves of sansevieria only like it - even in summer, do not water the plant more than 1 time per week.
In winter, you can moisten the soil only 1 time per month, while lowering the ambient temperature.
Too frequent watering is fraught with rotting of the root system and the death of the pet. It is recommended to focus on the soil: it must dry completely to the full depth.
Important! When watering, be sure to prevent water from entering the center of the outlet. Moisture very quickly provokes blackening and death of leaves.
One of the many benefits of pike tail content is no need to spray leaves. The procedure can even harm the outlets if moisture flows into their base. For hygienic purposes, you can only wipe the leaves with a damp cloth, removing dust from them.
How to transplant Sansevieria
Although the pike tail grows slowly, you should know how to transplant sansevieria at home.A wide pot is selected for transplantation, since the roots of the flower grow more sideways than in depth. In this case, the material from which the container is made is not important - plastic and clay flowerpots are acceptable.
Advice! For tall sansevieria, it is better to choose a heavy ceramic pot that will not tip over from overgrown foliage.
It is better to prepare the soil yourself from the same parts of sheet, turfy land and sand. The finished composition should be loose and highly nutritious. From ready-made substrates, pike tail will suit soil for succulents or cacti.
Relocation to a new pot is carried out by the method of transshipment:
- Water the plant for better extraction.
- Fill a new pot with drainage by a third, on top - a layer of soil.
- Turn the pike tail, holding the base, and shake it out of the pot.
- To remove softened or broken off roots, dust the place of damage with charcoal.
- Position the plant in the center of the new flowerpot and cover it with earth.
The newly transplanted mother-in-law tongue does not need fertilizers for a long time. Top dressing can be applied when the flower is contained in one substrate for more than six months or begins to wither.
Advice! Additives are added only in the active growth phase under good lighting conditions. In partial shade without the formation of new leaves, nutrients will not be absorbed and will only lead to a chemical burn of the roots.
Water the flower with fertilizer should be no more than 1 time per month, and best for this are fertilizing for succulents.
For the reproduction of pike tail, 3 methods are suitable: by seeds, leaf and division of the rhizome.
Finding sansevieria seeds in a store is practically impossible, at least on an industrial scale, they are not produced.
When a houseplant is blooming, planting material can be obtained from it.waiting for the pods to ripen.
They must be collected and dried at room temperature, after which small grains should be removed. Sow them in a container with wet sand and cover with a film. For seedlings, the greenhouse is placed in a warm place with good lighting for several months.
Attention! So that germination is successful, drying of sand and temperatures below 22 ° C must not be allowed.
You can grow a new plant from one leaf. For this, its slice is processed by Kornevin and immersed in wet sand.
To increase humidity the sheet is covered with a film or a jar. It takes about 2 months to form the roots and start the growth of other leaves.
It is possible to transplant into the soil for adult flowers a sprout with a rosette of 3 leaves.
During the next transplant, an overgrown pike tail is not only possible, but also necessary to divide. The rhizome is separated by sockets, if necessary, cut with a sharp knife.
This method is suitable for plants over 5 years old., otherwise underdeveloped sockets will be unviable in separate pots.
Pike tail flowering
The ability of a pike tail to bloom depends on compliance with the recommended rules of care. The buds are not very beautiful, but they fill the room with a perfumery aroma with sweet notes.
Corollas collected in a brush on an elongated peduncle and open in the evenings.. Flowers with narrow petals and long stamens are painted in the same gamut as the leaves - beige-green.
It will be possible to observe the flowering only after resting the plants in a cool place and relative drought.
The flower perceives such conditions as extreme and soon begins to produce flowers for seed formation. Only a month is enough for laying a flower bud, after which the former watering resumes in the heat.
Diseases and Pests
Most often, the content of pike tail does not cause difficulties. The following problems are rarely encountered:
- Dark spots appear from a lack of light.
- From excess moisture begins to develop fungal infection. It appears yellow-brown spots.
- Permanent waterlogging of the soil leads to root rotthreatening complete death of the flower. The first signs may be yellowing of the edges of the leaves.
- From cold air the leaves become lethargic.
- The variegated varieties of sansevieria become pale in dimly lit places.
- Not only the roots can rot, but also the base of the outlet due to the ingress of water into them or the content of the flower in a cold room.
- When frostbite leaves turn black and become soft.
Of the pests, whiteflies, mealybugs, or thrips usually inhabit the mother tongue.
- Whitefly lives both in the ground and on the leaves. From touching the plant, small white moths begin to fly.
- Thrips colonize the flower in colonies, especially on the lower surface of the leaves. They become brown at the same time.
- Mealybug begins to spread from the base of the leaves in the form of a sticky white coating. The pest eats juice from the leaf, they curl, turn yellow and die.
To combat them, insecticides for indoor plants, such as Aktara, have proven themselves well. Processing is carried out not only leaves, but also the earth: the substrate is watered with a solution of the drug. Another way is to replace the top 3 cm of soil after treatment.
Plant damage: signs and superstitions
The shape of the leaves of sansevieria is most often compared with the mother tongue, bearing in mind popular beliefs about the frustrations in the house when a flower appears.
Is it possible to keep such a flower at homeif he has a tendency to discuss inappropriate topics and gossip?
The answer is unequivocal - you can, given the useful properties of pike tail:
- Absorbs negative energy from the surrounding area.
- Esotericists believe that the pike tail contributes to the disclosure of the talents of households, their determination and enterprise.
- It cleans the air of toxic substances, especially benzene and trichlorethylene, coming from modern decoration materials.
- It releases phytoncides that kill pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
- Properly prepared extracts due to the high content of saponins are used even in medicine.
- Juice from the leaves is used in folk healing for wound healing.
Caution! In some cases, such a tool can cause an allergic reaction.
After describing all the rules of care and the properties of sansevieria, it is obvious that such a beautiful and healthy plant can grow in every house.