Begonia Cleopatra: description and photo of a houseplant, home care, reproduction
- The name itself was given to a decorative original flower in honor of Begon, who was the governor of Haiti and a great collector of various plants. It was he who became the inspirer and organizer of the scientific expedition to the Antilles in the 17th century.
- And in 1950, a small-leaved Mexican begonia arose. It is called the Bauer begonia, from which the Cleopatra hybrid begonia was obtained. The latter, which we are talking about, has another name - Beverage Begonia.
Begonia Cleopatra is a representative of the Begonia class. Of the many other subspecies, it stands out for its unusual leaves, their shape and color. The birthplace of this flower is considered by several countries at once - Africa, Asia and America.
Her appearance conquered many gardeners, so the flower is so often used for landscaping apartments, offices and educational institutions.
Below in the table you can familiarize yourself with the characteristics of the plant:
|Root system||Shaped Outlet|
|Stem||Thin, erect, reaches 50 cm in height|
|Leaf shape||Finger-shaped, leaves pointed to the ends|
|Leaf color||The color is olive with white streaks. The reverse side is painted in burgundy. The leaves are covered with a white fluff.|
|Flower shape||Small flowers, 4 petals each|
|Flower color||Pinkish. The middle of the inflorescences is yellow|
During flowering, a high peduncle grows on the stem of the bush. In the lower part on it you can see small inflorescences of white and pale pink color with a yellow center.
Since Cleopatra begonia is a plant with flowers of two sexes, seed boxes grow in the place of inflorescences at the female flower. Begonia Cleopatra is not only a beautiful, but also a useful plant.
It contains volatile, which fight against mold and fungal spores.
The leaves are considered unique: they are two-tone, of an unusual maple-leaved, palmate-lobed form, with a fleecy coating that looks like white fluff.
- The special charm of this flower is the leaves of an interesting saturated dark green color, their shape is similar to maple leaves.
- The stems are quite thin, their entire surface is covered with small hairs. The top side of the leaf blades has the same pubescence. Leaves on the shoots grow from a basal rosette.
- A distinctive feature of Cleopatra is the change in the shade of the leaf plates depending on the lighting. The outside was green, while the inside was dark maroon. The white fluffiness also gives a special shade.
- In the middle of the winter period, begonia begins to bloom (January - February). It is represented by elongated inflorescences, consisting of small (2 cm) pale pink flowers with yellow cores.
- On one plant instance there are flowers of both sexes, so at the end of flowering, instead of flowers, a seed box appears with three faces.
- The height of the begonia Cleopatra reaches a height of about half a meter.
Basic landing rules
Before you start breeding this plant at home, you must carefully consider the recommendations for planting.
To plant Cleopatra begonia in a pot, follow these rules:
- Use drainage before pouring earth. Small stones, pebbles or shards will be suitable as drainage.
- After installing the drainage, pour one third of the earth and plant the plant. Sprinkle the remaining soil on top.
- Choose fertile and light soil for the bush.
- When you complete the planting process, be sure to water the flower.
Necessary conditions for planting and growing
Begonia is a compact plant for the home. It does not require much care, but for the best growth, you should adhere to the rules for growing a flower. Its life expectancy also depends on the conditions of planting and maintenance.Basic conditions for keeping begonias at home:
- The most favorable season for planting is spring. They plant a flower no earlier than mid-March, since a short daylight will not be able to provide it with the necessary substances for growth.
- Immediately after planting, it is necessary to actively fertilize the soil of the bush in order to achieve rapid growth.
- Make sure that the sprout is not in a draft.
- It is necessary to pre-select a suitable pot size for the plant and soil with peat microelements.
- This flower does not like when it is transferred to another place, so take care of its location immediately. Observe the light regime when growing begonias, do not put the pot in direct sunlight.
- The flower comes from the tropics, so it requires a wet microenvironment. But pour it with water is not worth it, as the roots can rot.
The main rule in caring for begonia is moderation.
As soil, you can use special land from florist shops or dig up the soil yourself.
The soil must meet the following requirements:
- loose peaty soil;
- with low acidity.
To prepare the land for planting Cleopatra begonia at home, you will need land from the forest, peat, sand with large particles, perlite and polystyrene crumb. The earth must be calcined in the oven, and then mixed with the rest of the soil.
You can use purchased soil specifically designed for begonias (slightly acidic, loose), or you can prepare the soil for planting yourself. To do this, add coarse sand, perlite and peat in equal proportions to the forest calcined forest soil.
The flower should be comfortable, because proper lighting is another condition that the plant does not die. Begonia needs diffused natural light, however, the rays should not directly hit the flower. Perfectly develops in partial shade.
Ideal is the location on the west or east window. If you expose the pot to the south side, be sure to create a shadow. On the north side, it is better not to place the plant, since there will not be enough sun for growth.
Optimum temperature and humidity
The flower is quite resistant to short-term temperature jumps - high or low temperature. However, the temperature from + 18 ℃ to + 25 считается is considered most suitable for prolonged maintenance. The minimum temperature threshold that the plant can withstand is + 12 ℃ - + 14 ℃.
During the ejection of flowers, the plant will not withstand sudden changes in temperature. Such stress for a flower can be fraught with death. Therefore, the plant must be protected from drafts and put away from the batteries away in the heating season.
Choose a plastic pot, not clay, as the roots, growing, can grow into a pot of natural material. It is better to choose a wide one, since the plant has rosette-like roots, which subsequently grow.
How to care?
When care for begonias at home moisture must not be allowed to stagnate in the soil. To do this, you should always make sure that the top layer of the earth is already dry before watering. It is best to water Cleopatra in the morning or in the evening to avoid burns on the leaves.
In spring or when transplanting begonias, it is necessary to prune - cut all elongated stems to 4-5 cm above the soil. For a correct and beautiful bush, the plant must be periodically rotated. For comfortable growth Cleopatra must provide an air temperature of 18 to 20 degrees.
A couple of times a month is to feed the plant with mineral fertilizers. This is especially true for spring and summer. For top dressing, it is best to purchase fertilizers specifically designed for begonias. Top dressing can begin a week after planting. If the goal is to obtain flowering, Cleopatra should be fed with a complete complex fertilizer, where there is more potassium than nitrogen.
It’s easy to take care of Cleopatra begonia, but if some rules are violated, the plant reacts by dropping foliage and flowers.
Due to the fact that the rest period is poorly expressed, special conditions in winter do not need to be created. Cleopatra hibernates at a temperature of + 18 ... + 22 ° C. The only condition is to maintain a stable high humidity. To do this, heaters are covered with a damp cloth or installed next to the flowers are pallets with wet charcoal. At the same time, the amount of moisture introduced into the soil is reduced.
What does begonia look like to which family
Begonia (international name - Begonia) is a genus of plants of the Begonia family. Begonias were first discovered and described in the 17th century. during the expedition to the Antilles, organized by Michel Begon, a French officer and navy officer, in whose honor the flower got its name.
The natural habitat of begonias includes highlands (up to 4000 m above sea level), as well as tropical rainforests and subtropical regions of India, Africa and America. It is Africa that is considered the true birthplace of the plant.
There are several classifications of begonias. For indoor cultivation, it is convenient to use the division into two large groups:
- flowering varieties - with many bright flowers;
- decorative leafy varieties - with fancifully colored leaves, against which small flowers of the plant are simply lost.
Among the popular varieties of decorative-flowering begonia are the following:
The most common decorative leaf varieties include:
- Royal (aka Rex);
Begonia is not only an outwardly attractive, but also a useful indoor plant. Thanks to phytoncide activity, its leaves improve indoor air, cleansing it of toxins and dust.
Additional Information: due to its high decorativeness, today thousands of hybrid forms and varieties of begonias have been bred.
Top dressing is applied 2 times a month during the spring-summer period. They produce a special fertilizer for violets and begonias. It refers to organo-mineral preparations. Also, the drug "Bona Forte" has established itself well.
For young plants, drugs are diluted in a dosage less than half that indicated in the instructions. From the first year of plant life, the dosage is set strictly according to the instructions. In mid-summer, you can also use a solution of wood ash (1 tablespoon per 5 liters of water) and compost infusion (1 tablespoon of compost per 5 liters of water).
Important!Of organic fertilizers for begonias, slurry is not used - there is a great risk of burning the roots.
Features of watering
The flower is watered sparingly. Introducing water, you need to carefully raise the stems and pour it under the root. In the summer heat, watering is carried out once every 2-3 days, in winter - once a week.
The temperature of the water must match the ambient temperature. Tolerance is a fluctuation of ± 2 ° C.
Spraying in the summer is carried out daily. In September, plants are gradually switched to spraying mode once a week, and in the next month they are completely stopped. If humidity is low, use humidifiers.
How to trim and transplant?
Pruning begonias is carried out in order to regulate the growth, flowering and renewal of the bush. When the bush reaches a height of 7 cm, its top is cut with scissors treated with alcohol. This stimulates the growth of side shoots. Immediately after pruning, the amount of moisture introduced into the soil is reduced and spraying is temporarily canceled. Once the side stems have sprouted, you can resume the standard regime of care. When the lateral stems reach a length of 10 cm, a second pruning is performed. A section is made over a kidney located on the outside of the stem. After trimming, carry out only in the case when you need to remove:
- dried leaves / shoots;
Pinching is carried out throughout the entire period of active vegetation and implies the removal of excess apical shoots and buds. Before winter, pruning begonias is carried out at the request of the grower. Mandatory pruning for the winter requires only tuberous varieties of begonia.
Cleopatra begonias are transplanted every year. It is best to do this in the spring, but if necessary, you can at any time of the year. For example, if the root of a plant begins to rot, and urgent soil replacement is required. With a planned transplant, the pot is selected 2 cm more in diameter and in height than the previous one. The main requirement for the tank is a sufficient number of drainage holes. The material the container is made of does not matter.
Land for begonias is bought in specialized stores or made up on their own, mixing in equal proportions:
- sheet earth;
- coarse sand.
To this composition add 10% perlite and charcoal fine fraction. Disinfection of the soil is carried out by calcination in the oven at a temperature of + 100 ° C with the door open. After this, the soil is shed with a solution of manganese (1 g per 1 liter of water) and mixed thoroughly.
Did you know?Begonia gives the smallest seeds in the world. More than 3 million plants can sprout from 30 g of seed material.
The transplant is carried out by the transshipment method. To facilitate the removal of the plant from the pot, the earth is watered abundantly 30 minutes before the manipulation. 2 cm expanded clay is laid in the new tank at the bottom, and 2 cm of soil on top. When the soil becomes soft, the plant is carefully dumped out of the pot along with an earthen lump. Inspect the earth and roots for putrefactive processes. If everything is fine, move immediately to a new pot and sprinkle voids with nutrient soil. Plants are aligned on the root neck so that it rises 2 cm above the soil surface. A week after transplantation, the plants are not watered, but only maintain the optimal level of air humidity. Fertilizers after transplantation can be applied in a month.
Lives 3-4 years. After this period, the plant is reappeared by cuttings.
In spring and summer, it needs to be fed. Feeding should be both mineral and organic fertilizers 2 times a month. There are specialized fertilizers for top dressing.
This plant is transplanted annually in springtime. A transplant pot is chosen with a wider diameter than the previous one.
Cleopatra is susceptible to such a disease characteristic of many begonias as fungal infection. It is manifested by spots of rot on the leaves. If the plant becomes sick, then the infected areas are removed, and the rest of the plant is treated with a fungicidal preparation. In the future, for the prevention of fungal infection, it is necessary to adhere to the correct temperature regime.
Other growing problems:
- Yellowing of the leaves due to excess watering or too dry air;
- Brown spots caused by lack of nutrients;
- Poor growth and lack of flowering in the absence of top dressing with potassium and phosphorus.
Proper care will save begonia from the above diseases.
It is susceptible to damage by scale, thrips and spider mites. To control pests, special chemicals are used.
The most common begonia disease is powdery mildew, which covers the affected leaves with plaque.
Begonia cleopatra - unpretentious ornamental plant, which for growth and development requires compliance with certain rules for care.
These herbaceous plants with unusual leaves are wonderful decorate the interior and create a cozy atmosphere in the house.
Common Diseases and Pests
Most often, begonia Cleopatra is sick with powdery mildew, caused by microscopic fungi.With this disease, the leaves become covered with a powdery-white coating. The disease begins with leaves closer to the ground, passing over time to the entire plant. Infection over time leads to decay of the plant. The development of the disease stops when sprayed with special protective preparations, such as colloidal sulfur or copper sulfate.
For Cleopatra, as well as for other varieties of begonia, a fungal infection is characteristic, which appears on the leaves with spots of rot. Most often this occurs when there is a violation of the temperature regime. In case of a disease, it is necessary to remove the infected areas and treat the plant with a fungicidal preparation (a chemical preparation from the pesticide group).
Cleopatra can be affected by pests such as scale insects, thrips and spider mites. The scabbard is a small insect similar to a shell or flat aphid. This parasite sucks juices from the plant, resulting in drying of the leaves, and then the death of the plant. In the early stages of infection, spraying with insecticides is enough. If the disease is noticed late, then the scab should be removed mechanically, and then the begonia should be sprayed with the actara solution. Spraying will need to be repeated several more times in a break of a week.
Thrips, small parasites, cause the appearance on the sheets of yellow or discolored spots and stripes, which subsequently leads to the death of plant tissue. You can get rid of the disease with an insecticide solution.
If begonia will be kept at elevated temperatures and in the absence of the desired humidity, then a spider mite is more likely to appear. This parasite eating the plants can be seen by the thin web between the leaves. Acaricides and insectoacaricides will be effective against the pest.
If you find fluffy lumps on the leaves of Bower's begonia - you know, these are felts. Such pests must be removed with a cloth or cotton swab dipped in an insecticide diluted with water. If this does not help, then the leaves should be treated with an undiluted insecticide.
Great damage to many indoor plants causes aphids. She has her many colonies on peduncles and young stems. For the fight, you can use a good pressure of soapy water. With the defeat of almost all stems, it will be necessary to use insecticidal preparations.
The causative agent is the botritis fungus. Causes of occurrence: excess heat and moisture. You can detect by the numerous watery gray spots on the top of the plant, leaves and flowers. Gradually, they turn into mucus on the plant, expose it to rot and blackening. To combat, use a copper-soap liquid - dissolve 2 g of copper sulfate and 20 g of green or tar soap in a liter of water.
All the aboveground parts of the plant are affected. In the beginning, round spots with a white coating appear on the leaves, gradually they occupy the entire surface of the sheet, forming a powdery coating. Gradually, the leaves become brown and die. For the fight, a recipe is suitable, as well as against gray rot.
Begonia Cleopatra can be propagated in the following ways:
- Cuttings. In this case, cut the stalk about 5 centimeters and place in water or a special substrate (peat, sand and sphagnum moss in equal proportions) until the roots appear. After that, transplant into a pot.
- The seeds. The process begins with sowing seeds on loose soil, which are slightly pressed into the soil. A container with moistened soil is covered with a film and placed in a warm place. When sprouts appear, the protection from the film gradually begins to be removed. The best time for this option is from December to March.
- Sheets. It is necessary to cut the leaf with the petiole and after processing the root root cut, place it in the soil. Once every two weeks it is worth feeding young begonia with liquid fertilizers.
The plant can reproduce at any time of the year, but it should be noted that rooting is easier in the spring.
REFERENCE. In the 20th century, Russian scientists found that the volatile excretion of begonias is active against many molds, and in a room with begonias the total number of bacteria decreases by 70% in a week, and staphylococcus - by 60%.
Cuttings are best taken after flowering. The final shoot is shortened by 7 cm. The resulting stalk is placed for 24 hours in a solution of a growth accelerator (Zircon). 10 drops of liquid are added to 1 liter of water. After a day of soaking, the solution with the growth accelerator is replaced with ordinary standing water at room temperature.
With the advent of the roots, the stalk needs to be transplanted into a separate small container 5 cm high, 10 cm in diameter. The soil is taken, as for adult plants. Before use, the soil is moistened with a solution of wood ash (1 tbsp of ash per 1 liter of water). A hole is formed in the center of the container and the roots are immersed in it. The stem itself is buried in the soil 1-2 cm for stability. For a week the plant is set aside in a darkened room and covered with a transparent cap (can be made from an edged plastic bottle).
A week later, when the plant is completely rooted, it can be rearranged to a permanent place. With the advent of the first leaves, fertilizing begins. At the initial stage, urea is introduced. It contributes to the rapid development of green mass. 10 g of substance are added to 1 liter of water and spraying is carried out on a leaf and soil. The following top dressing can be carried out using an ash solution. 2 weeks after this, apply a little compost to the soil. In the future, special preparations are used to feed begonias.
Dividing the bush
Divide the root or tuber with a sharp knife into several parts. At the same time, buds and roots should remain on each dividend. The places of cuts before planting should dry completely, then they are sprinkled with crushed charcoal for disinfection and planted in separate containers.
How to grow begonia from seeds:
- Prepare a container with a moist substrate.
- Spread the seeds on the surface, but do not sprinkle with soil.
- Cover with foil or glass so that moisture does not evaporate quickly.
- Wait for the sprouts to appear by periodically spraying the seeds with a spray gun.
- When are formed 3-4 sheets seedlings dive while 2 months later pass into small individual pots.
Unlike other plants, begonias begin to bloom in the first year with the seed method of propagation, but the sprouts need to provide good lighting to gain green mass.
For this method, a whole sheet or part thereof is suitable.
To grow begonia from a leaf, you must:
- Incise the veins on the underside in several places.
- Lay the sheet with incisions on moist clean sand.
- Fix the sheet so that it begins to dry and curl.
- Pour sand around the sheet as it dries.
After a month, approximately in the lower part, roots will begin to form, and then small sprout leaves will appear. When they slightly increase in size, they can be dived and seated in the ground.
With proper care, begonia Cleopatra lives up to 4 years, creating a mood and healthy atmosphere for its owners.