Sansevieria (Sansevieria) is a perennial plant, which systematists attribute to the Asparagus family, then to the Agave family. The genus consists of 70 species and originates from dry savannas and subtropics of Africa, Asia and America. In our country, the plant is better known under the names "mother-in-law's tongue" or "pike tail".
Sansevieria is an evergreen, stemless perennial. Long leaves, reaching 1 m, most often have a lanceolate shape, are collected in a basal rosette and grow strictly vertically. But there are species in which they are directed in different directions or almost parallel to the surface of the soil. Most often, the leaves are flat, but in some species they are thick, like aloe or xiphoid, with an almost round cross section. They are painted in all shades of green, often have stripes of various colors, solid or intermittent, thick or similar to strokes, oriented along the sheet or transverse. In almost all species, the leaf plate ends with a sharp tip.
Sansevieria blooms once in a lifetime, throwing out a long thin peduncle covered with white, cream, but more often greenish-white flowers, similar to miniature lilies. They open at sunset and have a strong pleasant aroma of vanilla. Most often, flowering occurs in spring or summer, but in general, a flower stalk can come forward at any time. After wilting, berries with several seeds are formed.
A faded plant gradually loses its decorative effect and dies after a few years. The ability to form daughter rosettes after flowering remains.
Sansevieria Bolshaya is a perennial plant, the few succulent leaves of which are collected in a rosette. Usually their number does not exceed 4, the color is light green, with a red border, length - 30-60 cm, width - about 15.
Sansevieria Hyacintha has 2-4 litas up to half a meter high with a width of about 7 cm of a light green color with white or brick-colored edges. The sheet plate is covered with strokes grouped in transverse stripes.
Sansevieria Duneri is a leaf succulent, forming a dense rosette of 20 vertical flat leaves about 40 cm high and 3 cm wide. They have a green color and are painted with a dark pattern.
Sansevieria Graceful (Graceful) has a stalk about 5 cm high, which is surrounded by dense oval leaves with a pointed tip, grayish in color and a beige pattern.
Sansevieria Kirk is distinguished by green or brownish leaves with a brick edging along the edge, collected in sockets.
Sansevieria Liberius is remarkable in that its leaves, sometimes reaching a length of 1 m with a width of about 8 cm, are located almost horizontally. They are painted in dark green color, framed by a thin reddish or brown strip and covered with light green strokes and stains.
Sansevieria Three-lane - the most common species in pot culture. The xiphoid, up to 1 m tall flat leaves are collected in a dense basal rosette, painted green, there are varieties with a yellow wide border or with leaves decorated with strokes.
Sansevieria Cylindrical differs in dense cylindrical leaves with a yellow border and silvery transverse stripes on a dark green background.
In the middle of the twentieth century, the compact variety “Hanni” was obtained from the Sansevieria variety of the Three-lane “Laurenti”, which gained immense popularity due to its small size - its height is not more than 30 cm. Today there are many varieties:
- Golden Hanni - leaves are covered with golden stripes;
- Silver Hanni - leaves are silver, with a dark edging and transverse stripes;
- Hanti Cristata - very similar to the original variety;
- Robusta has short broad leaves;
- Futura - leaves are short and wide, with a yellow edging;
- White - leaves are covered with white longitudinal stripes and emerald specks;
- Nelson - short thick leaves velvety, emerald color;
- Compacta - thin short emerald leaves, yellow stripes pass along the edge, sometimes they twist;
- Twist Sister - the leaf plates are twisted and painted in olive and dark green, the edges are yellow.
It can be justifiably considered that sansevieria is one of the easiest plants to care for, able to withstand almost any conditions, and also perfectly clean the air. It is possible to destroy it only by systematic overflows. Depending on the type and variety, the plant reaches 30-120 cm in pot culture and gives 2-3 new leaves per year.
Temperature and lighting
Plants with variegated leaves can grow in direct sunlight, while in the shade their color turns pale. Sansevieria with a monochromatic color is able to grow in a dull shadow, however, it is advisable to put it on a more illuminated place (but not on the south window) for a couple of days a month. In direct sunlight, dark leaves can get burned.
The plant can grow at almost any temperature that a human home can offer, but it will feel most comfortable at 16-24 degrees all year round. In winter, with sparse watering, it will easily endure 10 degrees and even a short-term decrease to 5.
A pot with a plant can be taken out onto the street or balcony in the warm season. Most importantly, do not put it under the scorching rays of the sun.
Humidity and watering
The worst thing you can do for sansevieria is to water it abundantly. This is perhaps the only guaranteed way to destroy the plant. It is rarely necessary to water it when the earthen lump has thoroughly dried up (this does not mean that watering can be completely canceled). Humidify in winter less often, the lower the room temperature.
Even in the summer, going on vacation for 2-3 weeks, you can not worry about sansevieria. Of course, she will not like such a long drying in the heat, but she will not die and will recover very quickly.
Humidity does not matter, but if you still decide to spray the plant, make sure that moisture does not get into the center of the outlet - the leaves usually sit very tight and may rot.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
Many do not feed this plant at all, but during the period of active growth it is advisable to water the sansevieria with fertilizers diluted in water for cacti once a month.
Soil and transplant
A ready-made substrate for cacti is suitable, the pot should be cramped, with required holes, and the drainage layer should occupy at least 1/4-1 / 3 of the volume of the pot.
The plant is not transplanted, but transferred to a slightly larger container when the roots appear above the ground or deform the pot. Frequent transplants of sansevieria are simply not needed.
The plant blooms in pot culture very rarely, and not necessarily in summer or spring. As soon as the flower stalk appears, think about where you will put the plant during buds opening - the smell is at least pleasant, but very strong, and also attracts a variety of insects.
It is rather difficult to get seeds - if the plant blooms, then the seeds do not set in a pot culture, and the old ones have poor germination.
Propagation by leaf cuttings
With this method of propagation, the varietal characteristics of the mother plant are not preserved. All children will be similar to the original form.
The sheet is cut into pieces 5-8 cm long, dried for several hours and planted vertically in perlite, vermiculite or sand, buried by 1/3. To accelerate the germination and increase the number of children, the slice is treated with root.
Planting is covered with cellophane or a glass jar. The substrate must be moist, then it is poured very carefully, water is poured in a thin stream along the edge of the vessel or into the pan.
When young plants reach about 3-5 cm, they are planted in the smallest pots.
In order to preserve the varietal features of sansevieria, it is propagated by dividing the rhizome during transplantation or by separating daughter sockets. The section is sprinkled with activated charcoal and dried before planting in a separate pot. In this case, the yellow border, and the pattern on the leaves, and their twisted shape will be preserved.
Pests, diseases and possible problems
- If pests occur, treat sansevieria with an insecticide.
- With systematic overflows, the bases of the leaves first rot, then the rhizome and the plant die.
- Motley coloring disappears from a lack of light.
- The curvature of leaves is sometimes the result of the appearance of a mealybug.
- The edges of the leaves can be damaged by cold air.